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10 Best Image Processing Libraries in Python 2023

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There are several optional parameters you can use with rotate as well. The two that are most likely to be useful are center and fillcolor. The center parameter lets you pick the point that the image should rotate around.

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However, Pillow remains an important tool for dealing with images. It provides image processing features that are similar to ones found in image processing software such as Photoshop. Pillow is often the preferred option for high-level image processing tasks that don’t require more advanced image processing expertise. It’s also often used for exploratory work when dealing with images. To manipulate and process images, Pillow provides tools that are similar to ones found in image processing software such as Photoshop. Some of the more modern Python image processing libraries are built on top of Pillow and often provide more advanced functionality.

Image Thresholding

The documentation contains installation instructions, examples and even some tutorials to help get started in Mahotas. Check the below code to rotate an image by 90 degrees in an anticlockwise direction. Check the below code to rotate an image by 90 degrees in a clockwise direction. To save a ndarray as an image, we are using method.

Erosion is the process of removing white pixels from the boundaries in an image. You can achieve this in a binary image by using ImageFilter.MinFilter as an argument for the .filter() method. This filter replaces the value of a pixel with the minimum value of the nine pixels in the 3×3 array centered around the pixel.

PgMagick is a Python-based wrapper for the GraphicsMagick library. The GraphicsMagick Image Processing System is sometimes called the Swiss army knife of image processing. ITK or Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit is an open-source, cross-platform system that provides developers with an extensive suite of software tools for image analysis. SimpleITK is a simplified layer built on top of ITK, intended to facilitate its use in rapid prototyping, education and interpreted languages. SimpleITK is an image analysis toolkit with many components supporting general filtering operations, image segmentation and registration.

Resizing is very easy using PIL library, which is an image processing library as mentioned earlier. After resizing the image, I want to save it so that we can see the image after we run the program. And the end to save the image as an image file, we will use ‘save’ method. The main library that we will use for image manipulation is called PIL, which is the image processing library.

Nearing the end of our list is Pgmagick, which is another top Python library for image processing for the GraphicMagick library. The image processing tool has an impressive collection of tools and libraries that provide assistance in image editing and image manipulation. SimpleITK works a little differently than the other image processing libraries on this list. Instead of considering images as arrays, SimpleITK considers them as a set of points on a physical region in space. In other words, it defines the region occupied by images as origin, size, spacing, and direction cosine matrix.

Examining a specific data range#

However, there are times when you need to go further and manipulate images beyond the features that are already available in Pillow. These functions make it easier to experiment with erosion and dilation for an image. You’ll use these functions in the next section as you continue working on placing the cat into the monastery. You achieve thresholding by calling .point() to convert each pixel in the grayscale image into either 255 or 0.

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Today’s world is full of data, and images form a significant part of this data. However, before they can be used, these digital images must be processed—analyzed and manipulated in order to improve their quality or extract some information that can be put to use. PyCairo is a set of Python bindings for the graphics library Cairo. Vector graphics are interesting because they don’t lose clarity when you resize or transform them.

Opening Images

The resize method can also be used with additional parameters. These numbers are a region within the image that you want to resize. The format uses two x,y coordinates, one for a starting position and the other for the ending position. The upper left corner of the image would be 0, 0 going up to the size of the image where the lower right corner is . In Listing 1, the dimensions of the image were kept consistent. It is possible to resize the width separate from the height.

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She is also deeply passionate about ‚Women in Technology‘ and constantly encourages and mentors young girls to join the STEM fields. Pycairo is a set of Python bindings for the Cairo graphics library. Vector graphics are interesting because they don’t lose clarity when resized or transformed. The official documentation is very easy to follow and has tons of examples and use cases to follow. The documentation has instructions for installation as well as examples covering every module of the library. A complete list of resources and documentation is available on NumPy’s official documentation page.

Python Image Manipulation Tools You Can Try Today

The Python Pillow library has several built-in kernels and functions that’ll perform the convolution described above. You don’t need to understand the math of filtering through convolution to use these filters, but it always helps to know what’s happening behind the scenes when using these tools. When you merge the red band with green and blue bands containing zeros, you get an RGB image called red_merge.

  • In particular, the submodule scipy.ndimage (in SciPy v1.1.0) provides functions operating on n-dimensional NumPy arrays.
  • Even though there are other Python libraries for image processing, Pillow remains an important tool for understanding and dealing with images.
  • The argument determines the factor by which you scale the image down.
  • This is similar to drawing a rectangle in Paint or many other image editors.

Let’s adjust the upper limit, so that we effectively „zoom in on“ part of the histogram. But, if understand your task correctly, you can just think of an image as a multidimensional array and use numpy to manipulate it. The red square starts in a position displaced to the top-left of the center. In each successive frame, the red square moves closer to the center until it reaches the center in the final iteration of the loop.

Converting images to different color spaces using NumPy functions

SimpleCV is a python framework that uses computer vision libraries like OpenCV. This library is quite simple and easy to use and can be really helpful for quick prototyping. returns ret and frame, where the ret is the Boolean indicating that the function was successfully run or not and the frame contains the image taken by webcam.

The second argument is the location in the main image where you want to paste the second picture. The tuple includes the coordinates within the main image where you want to place the top-left corner of the image that you’re pasting in. The erosions and dilations have modified the image to keep the hole but remove the dot. The number of erosions and dilations needed depends on the image and what you want to achieve.


This is especially useful when making presentations of your data using projectors – their contrast is typically quite poor. Note that in this example, you’re iterating over range, which means that the variable offset increases in steps of two. You may need to slightly adjust the threshold value if your results do not match the ones shown in this tutorial. You can also use the PIL module to show the image with your default image viewer. Alex McFarland is a Brazil-based writer who covers the latest developments in artificial intelligence. He has worked with top AI companies and publications across the globe.

This makes it a great choice to perform computationally intensive computer vision programs. There are a large number of Jupyter Notebooks illustrating the use of SimpleITK for educational and research activities out there. The notebooks demonstrate the use of SimpleITK for interactive image analysis using the Python and R programming languages.

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However, for other backends, such as Qt, that open a separate window, cells below those that create the plot will change the plot – it is a live object in memory. I’m new to Image Manipulation, and so I want to apologize right here for my simple question. I’m currently working on a problem that involves classifying an object called jet into two known categories. My idea is to use this sub-objects to transform each jet in a pixel image, and then applying convolutional neural networks to find the patterns. In the next section, you’ll go a step further and create a GIF animation using NumPy and Pillow.


You can see a of all the filters available in the ImageFilter documentation. One of the methods that’s used in image processing is image convolution using kernels. The aim of this tutorial is not to give a detailed explanation of image processing theory. If you’re interested in the science of image processing, one of the best resources that you can use is Digital Image Processing by Gonzalez and Woods. The mode of the object that .split() returns is ‚L‘, indicating this is a grayscale image, or an image that only displays the luminance values of each pixel.

We’d like to encourage you to take what you’ve learned here and start experimenting with your own images. Perhaps you can come up with your own image filter or automate the post-processing of your photographs. Mahotas is a Python library for image processing and computer vision that was originally designed for bioimage Informatics. But other computer vision tasks can be performed using it as well. It is originally written in C++ which makes it pretty fast and it has no dependencies other than NumPy.

Using the Mars image, if you wanted to crop a portion out of the image and resize it to the size of the original image, you would add the box parameter as shown in Listing 2. Before we resize, you can print the current size of your image by the following code. Open Source Computer Vision, more commonly known as OpenCV, is a more advanced image manipulation and processing software than PIL. It has been implemented in several languages and is widely used. She is deeply interested in innovation, education, and programming and wants to solve real-life problems with Machine learning so that it can have a direct impact on society.

Often, you’ll need to find the right combination through trial and error. However, you’d like to have an image in which all the pixels that correspond to the cat are white and all other pixels are black. In this image, you still have black regions in the area which corresponds to the cat, such as where the eyes, nose and mouth are, and you also still have white pixels elsewhere in the image. The blurred images show that the box blur filter with a radius of 20 produces an image that’s more blurred than the image generated by the box blur filter with radius 5.